CAIN logo
CAIN Web Service

Violence - Details of Source Material

[Key_Events] Key_Issues] [Conflict_Background]
VIOLENCE: [Menu] [Reading] [Summary] [Background] [Chronology] [Incidents] [Deaths] [Main_Pages] [Statistics] [Sources]

Page Compiled: Brendan Lynn and Fionnuala McKenna
Material is added to this site on a regular basis - information on this page may change

This section contains a draft list of source material on the topic of violence in Northern Ireland. This list has been compiled from information available in the CAIN bibliography and the British Humanities Index.

Lists / Databases of those Killed

Sutton, Malcolm. (1994), Bear in Mind these Dead: An Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland, 1969-1993. Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications.
Also available as: Sutton Database of Deaths, 1969-2001.

McKeown, Michael. (2009). The McKeown Database of Deaths, 1969-2001. Web: CAIN.

McKittrick, David. Kelters, Seamus. Feeney, Brian. Thornton, Chris. (1999), Lost Lives: The Stories of Men, Women and Children who died as a result of the Northern Ireland Troubles. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing.


Republican Paramilitaries

Anderson, Brendan. (2002), Joe Cahill: A Lifetime in the IRA. Dublin: O'Brien Press. Dublin: O'Brien Press.

Bell, J. Bowyer. (1979), The Secret Army: The IRA 1916-1979. New Brunswick: Transaction.

Bell, J. Bowyer. (1990), IRA: Tactics and Targets. Dublin: Poolbeg.

Bell, J. Bowyer. (1999), The Secret Army: The IRA. (Updated edition). Dublin: Poolbeg.

Bell, J. Bowyer. (2000), The IRA, 1968-2000: Analysis of a Secret Army. London: Portland.

Beresford, D. (1987), 'Secret Letters of the IRA'. The Guardian, (27 Apr): 9.

Beresford, David. (1987), Ten Men Dead: The Story of the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike. London: Grafton.

Bishop, Patrick., and Mallie, Eamonn. (1988), The Provisional IRA.. London: Corgi.

Coogan, Tim. Pat. (1993), The IRA. London: Harper Collins.

Coogan, Tim. Pat. (1997), On the Blanket: The Inside Story of the IRA Prisoners' Dirty Protest.. Boulder, CO: Roberts Rinehart.

Cox, M. (1997), 'Bringing in the 'international': the IRA Ceasefire and the end of the Cold War'. International Affairs, 73, (4): 671-693.

Dillon, Martin. (1996), Twenty Five Years of Terror: The IRA's War Against the British. London: Bantam (Transworld Publishers Ltd).

Drake, C.J.M. (1991), 'The Provisional IRA: a Case Study'. Terrorism and Political Violence, 3, (2): 43-60.

English, Richard. (2003). Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. London: Macmillan.

Geldard, Ian., and Craig, Keith. (1988), IRA, INLA Foreign Support and International Connections. London: Institute for the Study of Terrorism.

Holland, J., and McDonald, H. (1994), The INLA: Deadly Divisions. Dublin: Torc.

Kelley, Kevin. (1988), The Longest War: Northern Ireland and the IRA. London: Zed.

MacStiofáin, Seán. (1975), Memoirs of a Revolutionary. London: Gordon Cremones.

McFarlane, Leslie. (1990), 'The Right of Self-Determination in Northern Ireland and the Justification for IRA Violence'. Terrorism and Political Violence, 2, 35-53.

Moloney, Ed. (2002), A Secret History of the IRA. London: Penguin Books.

Mooney, John., and O'Toole, Michael. (2003) Black Operations: The Secret War Against the Real IRA. Ashbourne: Maverick House Publishers.

Moxon-Browne, E. (1981), 'The Water and the Fish: Public Opinion and the Provisional IRA in Northern Ireland', in, Paul Wilkinson (ed.), British Perspectives on Terrorism. 41-72. London: George Allen and Unwin.

Moxon-Browne, Edward. (1981), 'Terrorism in Northern Ireland: The Case of the Provisional IRA'. Terrorism: A Challenge to the State, 6, 146-163.

Munck, Ronnie. (1998), 'Irish Republicanism: a New Beginning?', in Anderson, James., and Goodman, James. (1998) (eds.) Dis/Agreeing Ireland: Contexts, Obstacles, Hopes. London: Pluto Press.

Murphy, Seamus. (1993), ''I don't support the IRA, but...': Semantic and Psychological Ambivalence'. Studies, 82, (327): 276-86.

O'Brien, Brendan. (1999), The long war: the IRA and Sinn Fein. (3rd ed.). Dublin: O'Brien Press.

O'Brien, Brendan. (1993), The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin 1985 to Today. Dublin: O'Brien Press.

O'Brien, Brendan. (1995), The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin from Armed Struggle to Peace Process (updated ed.). Dublin: O'Brien Press.

O'Brien, Brendan. (1999), The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Fein (2nd ed.). Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

O'Brien, Brendan. (2000), Pocket History of the IRA: from 1916 onwards. Dublin: O'Brien.

O'Callaghan, Sean. (1999), The Informer. London: Corgi.

O'Doherty, Malachi. (1997), The Trouble with Guns: the Military Strategy of the Provisional IRA. Belfast: Blackstaff.

O'Doherty, Shane. (1993), The Volunteer: A Former IRA Man's True Story. London: Fount.

Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA). (2003), Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) Statement, (28 January 2003), [based on a series of written questions and written responses].

Rowan, Brian. (1995), Behind the Lines: the Story of the IRA and Loyalist Ceasefires. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.

Sluka, Jeffrey A. (1988), 'Loyal Citizens of the Republic: Morality, Violence and Popular Support for the IRA and INLA in Northern Ireland', in, Robert Rubinstein and Mary Foster (ed.) The Social Dynamics of Peace and Conflict. Boulder: Westview Press.

Sluka, Jeffrey A. (1989), Hearts and Minds, Water and Fish: Support for the IRA and INLA in a Northern Irish Ghetto. Greenwich, CT.: Jai Press.

Toolis, Kevin. (1995), Rebel Hearts: Journeys within the IRA's Soul. London: Picador.

White, Robert W. (1993), Provisional Irish Republicans: An Oral and Interpretative History. London: Greenwood Press.

Wilkinson, Paul. (1982), 'The Provisional IRA: an assessment in the wake of the 1981 Hunger Strike',. Government and Opposition, (Summer): 140-156.

See also:
List of Irish Republican Army (IRA) Statements.


Loyalist Paramilitaries

Anderson, Don. (1994), 14 May Days: The Inside Story of the Loyalist Strike of 1974. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

Aughey, Arthur. (1985), 'Between Exclusion and Recognition: The Politics of the Ulster Defence Association'. Conflict Quarterly, 1, 40-52.

Bruce, S. (2001), 'Terrorism and Politics: The Case of Northern Ireland's Loyalist Paramilitaries'. Terrorism and Political Violence, 13, (2): 27-48.

Bruce, Steve. (2001), 'Unionism Among the Paramilitaries', in, Hanna, Ronnie. (ed.) (2001), The Union: Essays on Ireland and the British Connection. Newtownards: Colourpoint Books.

Bruce, Steve. (1994), The Edge of the Union: The Ulster Loyalist Political Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bruce, Steve. (1993), 'Loyalists in Northern Ireland: Further Thoughts on 'Pro-State Terror' '. Terrorism and Political Violence, 5, (4): 252-265.

Bruce, Steve. (1992) The Red Hand: Protestant Paramilitaries in Northern Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crawford, Colin. (1999), Defenders or Criminals? Loyalist Prisoners and Criminalisation. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.

Cusack, Jim., and McDonald, Henry. (1997), The UVF. Dublin: Poolbeg.

Cusack, Jim. Taylor, Max. (1993), 'The Resurgence of a Terrorist Organisation: Part 1: the UDA, a Case Study'. Terrorism and Political Violence, 5, (3): 1-27.

Finlayson, Alan. (1997), 'Discourse and Contemporary Loyalist Identity', in, Shirlow, Peter., and McGovern, Mark. (eds.) (1997), 'Who are the People?': Unionism, Protestantism and Loyalism in Northern Ireland. London: Pluto Press.

Gillespie, Gordon. (2001), 'Loyalists since 1972', in, Boyce, George., D., and O'Day, Alan. (eds.) (2001) Defenders of the Union: A survey of British and Irish unionism since 1801. London: Routledge.

Guelke, Adrian. (1995), 'Paramilitaries, Republicans and Loyalists', in Dunn, Seamus. (ed.) (1995) Facets of the Conflict In Northern Ireland. Macmillan Press Ltd.

McAuley, W. James. (1991), 'Cuchullain and an RPG-7: the ideology and politics of the Ulster Defence Association', in Hughes, Eamonn. (ed.) (1991), Culture and Politics in Northern Ireland 1960-1990. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

McAuley, James White. (1996), 'From Loyal Soldiers to Political Spokespersons: A Political History of a Loyalist Paramilitary Group in Northern Ireland'. Etudes Irlandaises, 21, (1): 165-182.

McAuley, White James. (1997), 'Divided loyalists, divided loyalties: Conflict and continuities in contemporary unionist ideology', in, Gilligan, Chris., and Tonge, Jon. (eds.) (1997) Peace or War?: Understanding the Peace Process in Northern Ireland. Aldershot: Ashgate.

McAuley, White James. (1998), 'A Process of Surrender? Loyalist Perceptions of a Settlement', in Anderson, James., and Goodman, James. (1998) (eds.) Dis/Agreeing Ireland: Contexts, Obstacles, Hopes. London: Pluto Press.

Miller, David. (1978), Ulster Loyalism in Historical Respective. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

Nelson, Sarah. (1975), 'Ulster: Gunmen in Politics'. New Society, (1 May): 255-257.

Nelson, Sarah. (1984), Ulster's Uncertain Defenders: Protestant Political, Paramilitary and Community Groups and the Northern Ireland Conflict. Belfast: Appletree.

Rowan, Brian. (1995), Behind the Lines: the Story of the IRA and Loyalist Ceasefires. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.

Taylor, Peter. (1999), Loyalists: War and Peace in Northern Ireland. New York: TV Books.

Taylor, Peter. (1999), Loyalists. London: Bloomsbury.


Other Books

Bell, J Bowyer. (1993) The Irish Troubles: A Generation of Violence, 1967-1992. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

Bell, J. Bowyer. (1992) The Gun in Politics: An Analysis of Irish Violence, 1916-86, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Fay, Marie Therese. Morrissey, Mike. Smyth, Marie. (1997) Mapping Troubles-Related Deaths in Northern Ireland. Londonderry: INCORE.

Galliher, John F., and DeGregory, Jerry L. (1985) Violence in Northern Ireland: Understanding Protestant Perspectives. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

Gambetta, Diego., and Hamill, Heather. (2005). Streetwise: How Taxi Drivers Establish their Customers' Trustworthiness. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. ... [17517]

Hamill, Heather. (2011). The Hoods: Crime and Punishment in Belfast. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ... ... [17516]

Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism. (1992) Northern Ireland: Reappraising Loyalist Violence: A Special Report, (Conflict Studies No.24). London: Institute for the Study of Conflict.

Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism. (1991) Northern Ireland: Reappraising Republican Violence - A Special Report. London: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism.


Journal Articles

Bell, J. Bowyer. (1993) 'The Irish troubles analysed', Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 5, No.1, pp.160-165.

Bonner, David. (1992) 'The United Kingdom's response to terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol.4, No.4, pp.171-205.

Bruce, Steve. (1992) 'The problem of 'pro-state' terrorism: Loyalist paramilitaries in Northern Ireland', Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol.4, No.1, pp.67-88.

Cusack, Jim and Taylor, Max. (1993) 'The resurgence of a terrorist organisation - part 1: the UDA, a case study', Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol.5, No.3, pp.1-27.

Drake, CJM. (1991) 'The provisional IRA: a case study', Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol.3, No.2, pp.43-60.

Kinsela, Sean. (1994) 'The cult of violence and the revolutionary tradition in Ireland', Studies, Vol.83, No.329, pp.20-29.

McVeigh, Robbie. (1994) 'The politics of violence', Peace Review, Vol.6, No.1, pp.51-57.

Nelson, Sarah. (1975) 'Ulster: gunmen in politics', New Society, pp.255-257, 1 May.

O'Duffy, Brendan.(1995) 'Violence in Northern Ireland 1969-1994 - sectarian or ethno-national', Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol.18, No.4, pp.740-772.

Soule, John. (1989) 'Problems in applying counterterrorism to prevent terrorism: Two decades of violence in Northern Ireland Reconsidered', Terrorism: An International Journal, Vol.12, pp.31-46.

White, R.W. (1993) 'On measuring political violence: Northern Ireland 1969-1980', American Sociological Review, Vol.58, No.4, pp.575-585.

n.a. (1971) 'Ulster goes on fighting', The Economist, No.238, 23 January, p.16.

n.a. (1971) 'Ulster: the consequences of murder', The Economist, No.239,13 March, p.21.

n.a. (1971) 'And yet more atrocity', The Economist, No.244, 26 August, p.21.

n.a. (1973) 'Conflict and violence', Studies, Vol.72, Summer issue, p.115-118.


Government Reports

Alderdice, Lord., McBurney, John., and McWilliams, Monica. (Fresh Start Panel). (2016). The Fresh Start Panel Report on the Disbandment of Paramilitary Groups in Northern Ireland, May 2016, (published 7 June 2016), [PDF; 980KB]. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive (NIE). ... [20680] - [Report]

Great Britain. Government. (1972) Violence and Civil Disturbances in Northern Ireland in 1969/ The Scarman Report. Belfast: HMSO, Cmd.566.

Ingram, Adam. (2006) Announcement by Adam Ingram, then Minister for the Armed Forces, on the Normalisation plan for military sites in Northern Ireland, (28 March 2006). London: Ministry of Defence (MOD).

Joint Committee on Justice, Equality, Defence and Women's Rights. (2006) Final Report on the Report of the Independent Commission of Inquiry into the Murder of Seamus Ludlow, (Final Barron Report), (Published 29 March 2006), [PDF; 1476KB]. Dublin: Houses of the Oireachtas.

Joint Committee on Justice, Equality, Defence and Women's Rights. (2005) Interim Report on the Report of the Independent Commission of Inquiry into the Murder of Seamus Ludlow, (Interim Barron Report), [Presented to an Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, on 19 October 2004; Published 3 November 2005], [PDF; 1650KB]. Dublin: Houses of the Oireachtas.

Northern Ireland Executive (NIE). (2016). Tackling Paramilitary Activity, Criminality and Organised Crime: Executive Action Plan, (19 July 2016), (Executive response to The Fresh Start Panel Report on the Disbandment of Paramilitary Groups), [PDF; 148KB]. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive (NIE). ... [23630] - [Policy Document]


Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC) Reports

See separate list of IMC Reports.


Other Publications

Anderson, T. Finn, A., Hamilton A. and McCartney, C. (1988) Violence and Communities: The Impact of Political Violence in Northern Ireland on Intra-Community, Inter-Community and Community-State Relationships, University of Ulster, Centre for the Study of Conflict.

Byrne, Jonny. (2005) Interface Violence in East Belfast during 2002: The impact on residents of Short Strand and Inner East Belfast, (October 2005), [PDF, 1451KB]. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research (ICR).

Kennedy, Liam. (2022). Final Report (perhaps): They Don't Shoot Children Anymore, (27 November 2022), [PDF; 521KB]. Belfast: The Author.. ... [24135] - [Report]

New Ulster Movement. (1972) Violence and Northern Ireland, (June 1972). Belfast: New Ulster Movement.

Melaugh, Martin. (2018). A note on the history of violence at the border, and the possibility of violence following Brexit, (3 August 2018). CAIN: ... [19715] - [Web Page]

McCarney, Willie. (ed.)(1995) Growing through Conflict: the Impact of 25 years of Violence on Young People growing up in Northern Ireland / Conference Proceedings of the International Assoc. of Juvenile and Family Court Magistrates Regional Seminar, Belfast: International Association of Juvenile and Family Court Magistrates.

Murphy, Brendan., and Kelters, Seamus. (2003) 'Hard News', in, Eyewitness: Four Decades of Northern Life. Dublin: The O'Brien Press.

O'Duffy, B., and O'Leary, B. (1990) 'Violence in Northern Ireland, 1969-June 1989', in, McGarry, John., and O'Leary, Brendan. (eds.) The Future of Northern Ireland. London: Oxford University Press.

Royal Ulster Constabulary (annual from 1970) Chief Constable's Annual Report

Sinn Féin. (2005) Unionist Paramilitary Attacks, June-August 2005, (18 August 2005), [PDF; 257KB]. Belfast: Sinn Féin.

Sinn Féin. (2004) Template for Interface Intervention: A Sinn Féin Discussion Document, June 2004, [PDF; 233KB]. Belfast: Sinn Féin.

Stevens, John (2003) Stevens Enquiry: Overview and Recommendations, 17 April 2003. By Sir John Stevens QPM, DL Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service. [This summary report was also made available as a PDF File; 243kb]

Tucker, H. H. (ed.) (1988) Combating the Terrorists: Democratic Responses to Political Violence, New York: Facts on File.

Unionist Joint Working Party. (1987) The Anglo Irish Agreement: A Legacy of Continuing Violence. Belfast: Unionist Joint Working Party.


National Newspaper Articles

O'Brien, Conor Cruise. (1971) 'Celebrating patriotic violence', The Observer, 12 December 1971, p.8.

O'Brien, Conor Cruise. (1979) 'Decade of violence', The Observer, 19 August 1979, p.34.

Lennon, Peter. (1971) 'The mind of the IRA', The Sunday Times, 12 September 1971, p.17.

Winchester, Simon. (1972) 'Waiting for the war to cease', The Guardian, 2 August 1972, p.13.

Van der Vat, Dan. (1978) 'Ulster: a legacy of violence', The Times, p.8, 15 August 1978.



Pack Up Your Troubles (Critical Eye Series), U.K., (60 mins.) 24 October 1991.

The Price of Violence (Tuesday Documentary), BBC, 14 November 1972.

Weekend World, London, ITV, 11 February 1973. [Protestant backlash after week of greatest Loyalist violence to date - interviews with paramilitary groups and studio discussion]

Weekend World, London, ITV, 20 October 1974. [Growing violence in the North: Interviews with Tommy Lyttle (UDA) and Maire Drumm (Sinn Fein)]

Written in Blood: The Paramilitaries (25 Bloody Years) UK (50 mins.) 21 August 1974.

The Deep Dream of Peace (The Long War - 25 Years of the Army in Northern Ireland), Channel 4 Productions, 10 July 1974.

See also:
The Peter Heathwood Collection of Television Programmes.


CAIN contains information and source material on the conflict and politics in Northern Ireland.
CAIN is based within Ulster University.

go to the top of this page go to the top of this page
ARK logo
Last modified :