Calendar of Newspaper Articles dealing with Civil Rights issues, 1 Jun 1968 - 9 Dec 1968 by Alan Scott
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October 1968: | 1-5 | 7-12 | 14-19 | 21-26 | 28-31 |
14 - 19 October: | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | Top |
14 October, 1968
Editorial: The timely meeting of parliament at Stormont
provides the opportunity to take political debate off the streets
and into the legislature, where it belongs. The Queen's students
have made their point effectively, and should not spoil the creditable
image they have created by marching again; they must also be careful
to avoid infiltration by 'outside propagandists.' Paisleyites
are entitled to their freedoms, but it is significant that they
try to deny others those rights of which they avail themselves.
Leader: The cabinet meets to discuss the developing situation
in light of the Derry disturbances. O'Neill
is expected to make a speech on the wider implications of recent
events for community relations. It
is not clear whether Nationalists will attend the debate. Fitt
will not be there, arguing that 'the Unionists will try to turn
the civil rights issue into an orange and green debate.' Recent
events have caused O'Neill's policies a serious setback. His
leadership however will only come under serious scrutiny if the
crisis is allowed to drag on. Wilson may
be blunt with O'Neill when the two meet, but it is unlikely that
the British prime minister will present an ultimatum, since he
realises that direct intervention would only weaken O'Neill's
reformist leadership. Paisley announces
his intention to hold demonstrations coinciding with the planned
student march later in the week.
O'Neill raps 'fair weather friends'
Report: O'Neill criticises Lynch over recent remarks on Northern Ireland. Brooke praises the government's response to the Derry disturbances. Responding to criticism of the local government franchise, O'Neill argues that the ratepayer qualification persisted in Britain until 1948. The Sunday Telegraph claims that O'Neill now has a majority of only one vote in cabinet, and feels that if he is succeeded by either Craig or Faulkner, Westminster intervention will be made more likely.
O'Neill criticises Province's 'fair weather friends'
Report: O'Neill expresses
his disappointment at recent pronouncements on Northern Ireland
made in the Republic of Ireland. He defends the local franchise,
which he says is the same as that which existed in Britain until
1948. He defends the RUC, a force
that he says has a difficult job to perform. Samuel Silkin, chairman
of the , believes in O'Neill's sincerity as a reformer, and perceives
the strength of the uncompromising faction in the Unionist Party.
He adds however that reform must come soon if the
situation is not to escalate eventually into violence. 'However
great the reluctance in Whitehall and Westminster to intervene,
the overriding need to uphold human rights
and to avoid bloodshed may compel an intervention which could
in these circumstances be both lawful and justifiable.'
Social injustices to blame for Derry violence, cardinal says
Leader: Cardinal Conway expresses the belief that, with
regard to the recent violence in Derry, 'the immediate causes
of these events are social. They grow out of the frustration
of ordinary people who want houses and a fair chance of jobs and
equitable representation.' People will however 'respond to any
credible sign that their position is going to be remedied soon
put off tackling these injustices realistically until the extremists
who support them fade away is, I believe, misguided and dangerous.'
He agrees with a call from the protestant churches
for 'an examination of conscience by everyone into the significance
of recent events,' and also with the hopes they have expressed
for 'peace and harmony in the community.' He continues, 'I beg
those who are in a position to determine government policy not
to make the mistake of seeing recent happenings in purely political
terms.' McAteer has asked for 'anything
at all that will bring us to the conference table and not the
barricades.' He adds that he does not want to be forced to retreat
into a fixed position: 'my appeal is to the silent Unionists who
say privately that indeed there are wrongs to be righted but are
frightened off by the silly old "not-an-inch" catch-cries.'
Plea for peace in Province
Report: Protestant church leaders call for a period of calm and reflection on the implications of recent events in Northern Ireland. The official organs of the Church of Ireland and of the methodist church call for 'measures to end social injustices.' O'Brien talks of the risks of a policy of civil disobedience. The Nationalist Party executive recommends that the parliamentary party withdraw from its role as official opposition at Stormont.
Action can't be put off - Cardinal
Report: McAteer says, 'now is the
time to do something before we are all driven into fixed public
positions from which retreat is impossible. My appeal is to the
silent Unionists who say privately that indeed there are wrongs
to be righted but are frightened by the silly "not-an-inch"
Cure causes of unrest - moderator
Report: Withers feels that grievances should be analysed
and, 'where basic justice is being denied to any section and driving
it to despair
to set right at once what is wrong.' He also
appeals to nationalists 'to accept the fact that they are citizens
of this state, which claims their allegiance, and involve themselves
loyally in its institutions.' He appeals to protestants not to
engage in provocation.
Presbytery calls for goodwill
Report: Derry presbytery talks of the development of good
community relations over the years,
and asks that the law be respected and that people work and pray
for peace and justice.
Consciences in need of examination
Editorial: Those who have not suffered discrimination
find it difficult to sympathise with catholics who have: 'there
is always the feeling that grievances become propaganda and, in
any case, it is both impolitic and dangerous to sympathise too
much.' The Christian churches must continue to
raise issues of injustice. 'If these problems are to be solved
there will have to be a complete investigation by a body so respected
and so representative that its findings will have to be accepted.
Only Mr Wilson should provide such a body.'
Minority treatment in North: 'UN might have to be told'
Report: Conor Cruise O'Brien feels that the plight of the minority in Northern Ireland might have to be brought to the attention of the United Nations. He feels that O'Neill is trying to be constructive, but that pressure from the UN would help counteract that from the Paisleyite 'hate merchants.' Civil disobedience would entail great risks and sacrifices for the minority, and should not be entered into lightly.
RCs are warned about civil disobedience
Report: O'Brien has argued for caution over civil disobedience, and feels that O'Neill's replacement by a 'strong man' might even prove beneficial if concessions could be forced through by that successor. Professor Geoffrey Copcutt feels that a distinction must be drawn between protest against partition and that against discrimination. The Sunday Express calls for an inquiry into what can be done to calm tensions. It points out that Craig did not ban the parade and that an alternative route was suggested. The claim is made in the Sunday Independent that 'communists there certainly were in the organisation of the parade, but the Londonderry people followed them in spite of the communism, not because of it.' There were also republicans on the march, but most of those involved in the demonstration were simply ordinary people expressing their grievances. Wilson should intervene and introduce reforms now.
[BT, 12 October]
Dr Vick rejects O'Brien charge
Report: The vice-chancellor of Queen's University
denies having bowed to Paisleyite pressure
in reference to arrangements for a meeting at which O'Brien spoke
on civil disobedience.
Westminster rule, suggested solution
Report: North Belfast NDP
is told that 'on the evidence of the past, mere pressure from
Westminster will amount to little but meaningless ecumenical gestures
from Captain O'Neill.' Stormont
should be temporarily suspended and direct rule introduced, enabling
Westminster to introduce one-man-one-vote and repeal the Special
Powers Act, measures which are elementary
to democracy in Northern Ireland. A telegram is also sent to
Wilson calling for a public inquiry into
the ban on the Derry march and police brutality.
'Disorders in Derry debase Britain'
Report: Heaney sends a message to a British UN delegate
deploring the 'government by violence' that occurs in the 'police
state' of Northern Ireland. 'The white men of Derry have the
same rights as the black men of Rhodesia, and they will take what
your government will not give.'
'Paisley tail still wags Unionist dog'
Report: The British Liberal representative sent to investigate
Northern Ireland feels that extremists such as Paisley
still exercise undue influence over Unionism.
He also states that excessive police violence was used in Derry,
but is unprepared to blame the RUC
alone for events.
Liberals send 'investigator' to Derry
Report: A British Liberal Party statement, following the party's fact-finding mission to Northern Ireland, draws the distinction between partition and other main grievances, the latter of which must be addressed irrespective of anyone's position on the former.
[BT, 12 October]
Wolf at the gate in Derry - Copcutt
Report: Professor Geoffrey Copcutt claims that discrimination and partition should be treated as wholly separate issues.
Report: The executive of the Republican Clubs blames Unionist demonisation of the civil rights movement for recent sectarian outbreaks in Belfast.
A direct result of inflam[m]atory statements
Report: The Six County Regional Executive of the Republican
Clubs advises no retaliation against recent
sectarian incidents in Belfast which, it urges,
are the result of provocative statements by Unionists. The civil
rights movement should not endanger the unity that it is creating
by such retaliation.
Shock at 'gross violence used by police'
Report: The AOH consultative
committee condemns police violence in Derry, and asserts that
the right to demonstrate is fundamental
Oxford and the Derry incidents
Report: A branch of the Campaign for Democracy in Northern
Ireland has been formed in Oxford. An organiser claims that many
English people have been shocked at what television has shown
them of events in Derry.
Petrol bombs hurled during civil rights clash with Gardai
Report: A civil rights demonstration in Dublin, staged outside the British embassy, turns violent.
Petrol bomb clash at British embassy [Report]
Police fight Dublin crowd at embassy [Report]
Moderates form majority in Ulster - Lord Hamilton
Report: The Marquis of Hamilton feels that the majority
of people in Northern Ireland, as moderates, must not be disheartened
by 'this temporary setback in community relations.'
He blames media coverage of the situation for presenting a false
view of reality.
Report: A letter from the Young Unionist
Council praises UTV for its recent televised debate on Northern
Ireland, which showed British viewers 'the type of destructive
rabble, anti-Ulster, and anti-law and order, who took part in
the attempt to introduce civil strife in Londonderry under the
guise of civil rights.'
'Brute force' condemned by union
Report: The executive committee of the Draughtsmen's and
Allied Technicians' Association in London condemns the Derry ban
and the 'brute force' employed by police. The Westminster government
should 'bring about the necessary reforms which will
grant to the people of Northern Ireland the basic civil rights
of one man one vote, the right to work, and freedom from discrimination.'
Union man replies to criticisms
Report: A DATA representative justifies his union's stance
on civil rights in the light of some criticisms from union members.
Violence is abhorred but can be prevented in the end only by
the removal of the grievances that lie at its root. It is stated
that the union has consistently worked to foster good community
Report: West Essex Ulster Society feels that it is tragic
that O'Neill's progressive record
has been damaged by events 'provoked by forces hostile to Ulster.'
Report: A memorandum sent by the NILP
to Wilson on the situation in Northern Ireland
is criticised by a Belfast religious group, and is deemed non-factual.
The real problem in Northern Ireland at present is seen to be
that of a communist plot.
Craig action approved
Report: Duncairn Unionist Association
praises Craig's response to the Derry events,
and argues that the statement issued by the local hospital with
regard to the lack of serious injury clears the police of charges
of unnecessary force having been employed against marchers.
'Appreciation' for minister
Report: Pottinger Unionist Association praises Craig's actions and expresses its confidence in O'Neill and his cabinet.
Craig backed [Summary]
City Hall Unionists back Craig
Report: Unionist members of Belfast city council back the
actions of Craig and the RUC
with regard to Derry; the police are said to have been placed
under 'severe provocation,' but nevertheless acted commendably.
Labour accused of republican bias
Report: The vice-chairman of the Ulster Young Unionist
Council says that Labour views on Northern
Ireland are biased and that the party's assertions are inaccurate.
He feels that the civil rights movement is controlled by communists.
Bailie attacks Lynch for his references to
Derry and 'the irrelevant partition issue.'
Pottinger 'a Unionist test case'
Report: Belfast councillor Albert Quinn sees the Pottinger
by-election as a test of Unionist support following events in
'Stalking horse for violence'
Report: The Irish Times criticises the violent tactics
of some of those who associate themselves with the cause of civil
rights, but claims that the civil rights movement itself cannot
be blamed for their independent actions. The Irish Press
sees the recent Dublin violence as a setback to the civil rights
movement, but the Irish Independent contrasts the scenes
in Dublin with police brutality in Derry.
Action Committee PO resigns
Report: The press officer for the Derry Citizens' Action Committee, an ex-Unionist councillor resigns in protest at a decision to hold a sit-down protest outside the city's Guildhall. 'The proposed sit-down meeting, "interpreted as civil disobedience, could no [sic - do] nothing but harm to the objectives of the Committee".'
Unionist out of Derry protest group [Report]
Peace group splits
Report: A member of the DCAC resigns, wishing to dissociate
himself for civil disobedience or 'criticism of the forces of
order.' The Committee will make a public appeal for funds in
support of the civil rights cause, and to help pay the expenses
of those involved in the recent disturbances. The peaceful intent
of the forthcoming demonstration is emphasised. The Liberal Party
fact-finding mission in Northern Ireland has ended with a call
for an end to gerrymandering and the passing
of legislation at Stormont designed to promote equality. McAteer
appeals for 'common sense' to prevail, so that no party is driven
into a position from which it cannot retreat. He appeals to 'the
silent Unionists who say privately that indeed there are wrongs
to be righted.' They must speak out against continued injustice.
Some union members dissociate themselves from statements condemning
the Craig ban, issued by the bodies of which
they are members.
Civil rights sit-in in Derry
Report: The DCAC will hold a sit-down demonstration outside the Guildhall in Derry. 'We ask all people who feel strongly over civil rights to discipline themselves, and show the world that we could have had a peaceful demonstration last Saturday.' John Hume states that 'anyone causing trouble is an enemy of the civil rights movement.' The Committee is compiling information both on October 5 and on the reasons for the march.
[BT, 12 October]
Belfast again faces tension
Report: A student civil rights march and UCDC
counter-demonstration have been called; the new student body,
known as the People's Democracy, which contains non-student elements,
has invited all sections of the community to join its demonstration.
Ian Brick, president of the Students' Representative Council,
feels that students will be blamed for any trouble that may occur
on the march. Paisley says that two recently-released
criminals participated in the last Belfast demonstration, and
feels that 'CRA
equals IRA.' He adds that the Association
is not interested in civil rights, but in destroying Northern
Ireland; it is accused of provoking the violence in Derry. In
Derry itself, the DCAC will hold a sit-down protest later in the
New body takes over students' protests
Report: Student protests over civil rights are now to be
organised by a group including non-students, known as the People's
Democracy. Ian Brick, president of the Queen's Students' Representative
Council, warns of the dangers of non-student participation, including
the possibility that students will be manipulated.
QUB students complimented 'on restraint'
Report: The student protesters from Queen's University
are complemented by the president of the methodist
church in Ireland on their restraint during the
Protests over rent increases
Report: A march demonstrating against Housing Trust rent increases is called off in view of Paisley's proposed march (itself later cancelled). A spokesman stresses the non-political nature of the demands being made: 'we are just fighting for the rights of tenants.'
[BT, 12 October]
Open letter to prime minister urges leadership
Letter: O'Neill once urged that people ought 'never to shrink from controversy, however comfortable and pleasant it may be to do so.' 'Many of us are now looking to you [O'Neill] for some leadership before the Province is overwhelmed and swamped by events.' Unionism must not shrink from its responsibilities; it is in a position to decide whether the future is a constitutional or a violent one. O'Neill must attack the extremists rather than the reformers, so that Unionism can live by the pledge of a fair deal for all of the people of Northern Ireland that the party gave in 1967. If O'Neill cannot carry the desired reforms through, then he should resign and lead a constitutional movement. British intervention in Northern Ireland would be as harmful as a campaign of civil disobedience.
[see BT, 16 October]
Only Captain O'Neill can save an explosive situation
Letter: O'Neill's reforms
are going ahead too slowly for the minority and too quickly for
the majority. 'This is a crucial time for Northern Ireland.
If the frustration and impotence of the minority get out of hand,
and if the fear and uncertainties of the majority are exploited,
this community will be put back in the hands of the extremists,
the demagogues, the gunmen.' O'Neill is the only man who enjoys
both the respect of the minority and the (sometimes grudging)
acceptance of Unionists. The solution lies in his hands.
Local election votes at 21; why not a new act?
Letter: A new electoral act should be drawn up by students
and presented in parliament by the opposition that will enable
voting in local elections by all people over the age of 21. Until
this is done, Unionist MPs will continue to claim to be opposed
Courage needed to take stand on civil rights
Letter: All reasonable people in Northern Ireland should
make their views in favour of civil rights known. This takes
courage, but the Northern Ireland Liberal Party can provide a
vehicle for such expression through the ballot box.
Leave Stormont to Unionist Party
Letter: The Nationalist Party should
leave Stormont altogether. 'The civil rights movement has cut
across both religious and political lines uniting a very wide
section of the community.' The movement has done a great deal
of good work, and efforts towards reform should be
intensified. Opposition MPs should co-ordinate their efforts
towards this end.
Letter: A provocative Orange parade
down the nationalist Longstone Road did take place.
Letter: It should be pointed out that the newly-constituted civil rights body at Queen's University, the People's Democracy, has made provision that non-students may take part in its activities. If there is any trouble the blame will however undoubtedly fall on the students. There is also a danger of students falling victim to outside manipulation.
Future marches: danger of students getting blame [Letter]
Freedom also for Czechs
Letter: Sinclair would have the support
of the people of Northern Ireland if she spoke out for the freedom
and civil rights of the Czechs.
Letter: Students are to be congratulated on their 'dignified'
and 'disciplined' conduct while demonstrating.
Letter: The comparison made by some students between Northern
Ireland and Nazi Germany is ridiculous.
Letter: It is displeasing to see ratepayers' money spent
on students who demonstrate.
Letter: The Dungannon speeches, the attacks on the government, and other aspects of the civil rights movement reveal its associations with the IRA.
[see BT, 9 October, Right men at the helm]
Letter: The Northern Ireland situation has been seriously
misrepresented in the media. 'Every decent Ulsterman knows that
this sort of trouble is geared by the Reds, hand-in-hand with
trouble-makers who are always shooting off their mouths about
some "injustice," supported by a lot of unemployed riff-raff
living on government money.'
Letter: There has been a great deal of sympathy shown for
'the people who were marching and rioting' in Derry but none for
those 'whose windows were broken and goods looted by people who
have no respect for law and order
If this is what those who
march call civil rights it is time they went home and hid with
Letter: Eyewitness reports of 'police aggression' in Derry
make Stormont's denials 'unwholesome.' How can a British government
associate itself with such behaviour?
Letter: The Unionist government is adopting an untenable position in 'attempting to justify a repulsive type of repressive legislation that is repugnant to anyone with any interest in the democratic process or with any sense of fair play.' The police acted like thugs in Derry; the Northern Ireland government labels itself inappropriately as British.
[NL, 16 October]
Letter: Those wishing to parade should supply a considerable
amount of money as a guarantee against possible violence by marchers.
15 October, 1968
Derry debate: Nationalists to decide today
Leader: It is thought unlikely that the Nationalist parliamentary party will withdraw from its role as the official opposition at Stormont A meeting is being held to decide the party's tactics in the forthcoming debate on events in Derry. A People's Democracy march will be held tomorrow, as will Paisleyite counter-demonstrations. The PD identifies non-violence as of primary importance to the civil rights struggle Fitt says that many British MPs have been asked by their constituents to take immediate action over Northern Ireland.
Stage set for bitter debate
Report: Nationalists are expected to attend the opening
of Stormont, where heated debate on recent events in Derry is
expected. The government will press ahead with its motion supporting
the conduct of Craig who, along with O'Neill,
is expected to make a major statement in the house of commons.
The PD calls on church representatives to join
its march. No official objections are expected to be made to
the DCAC sit-down demonstration in Derry. Unionist members of
Belfast city council express their support for Craig and the police.
Newry urban council asks O'Neill to hold an impartial
inquiry into the Derry riots.
Opposition boycott the Derry debate
Report: O'Neill calls at Stormont for a period of calm, feeling that the current build-up of tensions is threatening progress. 'The place for political arguments is in parliament, not in the streets. Disorder is the way, not to equal rights, but to an equal share of misery and despair.' He believes that a distorted picture of Northern Ireland has been created by recent events, and has decided to call a housing conference to consider ways in which house-building programmes can be accelerated. Violence will not promote change, which must be acceptable to people, and cannot be engendered by pressure from outside Northern Ireland. Further violence will cause a retreat into traditionally entrenched positions. He argues that the local government franchise cannot be considered in isolation from the wider examination of local government structures now in progress. Government wants to create 'a pattern of authorities designed not to favour one segment of opinion over another, but to secure the conditions for efficiency and the focusing of genuine local concern.' 'In the last resort change has to be acceptable change. Living happily together in a mixed community depends not upon legislation but upon a growth of trust and confidence. Neither internal violence nor attempts to engineer outside pressure is likely to promote such trust or encourage such confidence.' He feels that the RUC in Derry was rightly defending the law, and that allegations of government discrimination against minority areas are baseless. The NILP calls for a suspension of civil rights demonstrations for 30 days in order to allow a period of calm deliberation.
[IN, NL, 16 October]
McAteer-O'Neill in top talks
Report: McAteer meets with O'Neill
at the prime minister's request.
IRA threat of London action over Derry
Report: A caller claiming to represent the IRA
contacts the press, threatening that the organisation will take
action against buildings in London unless an inquiry is held into
police brutality in Derry.
Heated exchanges at Dungannon council over house letting
Report: A Dungannon councillor warns that
if the system for housing allocation
used by the council is not changed, unconstitutional means may
prove necessary to remedy the situation. 'Need is the criterion
by which most councils allocate their houses, but I think in Dungannon
religion counts as a important qualification.'
Belfast call for Derry inquiry
Report: Belfast Republican Labour councillor Paddy Kennedy gives notice of a motion he will put down condemning Craig and the RUC for their handling of the Derry situation on 5 October. Eileen Paisley gives notice of a motion praising these actions.
[IN, 16 October]
Newry call for Derry inquiry
Report: Newry UDC sends a letter to O'Neill
calling for an impartial inquiry into events in Derry. Derry
Nationalists will not attend a meeting of the city's Road Safety
Committee at which police will be present, as a token of their
disapproval of police actions on 5 October. The Belfast branch
of the United Nations Association calls for action rather than
words from government; however, it is acknowledged that no easy
miracles can be expected in combating injustice. It also questions
the legitimacy of the counter-demonstration as a tactic. Craig
and the RUC receive further praise
Objection to sit-down unlikely
Report: Police objections to the proposed DCAC sit-down
protest appear unlikely.
Support of churches sought on civil rights
Report: The PD calls on the churches to
support the Christian principles of civil rights.
'The new siege' of Derry
Report: The English catholic paper, the Tablet,
criticises the 'Orange-protestant establishment'
over the situation in Derry.
David Frost programme
Report: A recent television programme debating Derry was
farcical, and was deliberately set up so as not to expose the
Frost in the jungle
Comment: Television coverage of Ireland over the last week
has been unprecedented in its scale, thanks to the issues raised
in Derry. 'The strength of the civil rights idea lies in the
fact that it deals with a moral question; its appeal, which cuts
across the ice-age crevasses of political alignments is to the
men of good-will, to the idealism of youth, to all those who feel
that justice is indivisible and an injustice to one citizen is
an injustice to all.' The local coverage was good, although it
did highlight the neanderthal attitudes of many.
Need to unify Irish nation
Letter: The solution to the Derry situation and others
like it as a 32-county Irish republic with a strong republican
Nationalists at Stormont
Letter: The Nationalist Party should not only withdraw from its role as official opposition, but should also boycott Stormont. The party cannot steer a middle course; it must either back civil rights to the hilt or refuse to do so.
The Longstone parade
Letter: Faulkner did march with Orangemen
down the catholic Longstone road, and boasted that he could do
so at any time. 'Here in the Six Counties there is only a law
for one section of the community - the unionists, and none for
New low-ebb in the tarnished history of Unionism
Letter: Stormont Unionism 'affects
to see, in every just and rational request made of it, either
the same phoney IRA "eruption"
or a threatened "popish plot".' The reputation of Unionism
has hit a new low.
RUC in Derry
Letter: The RUC is far
from the brave force that Unionists like to portray; this was
proven by events in Divis Street a number of years ago when members
were confronted by a crowd.
RUC and the 'B' Specials
Letter: The 'B' Specials
comprise a sectarian force designed to protect
Unionism; the RUC
however has generally been held in high regard by catholics.
This has been changed by the congratulations offered to the force
by Unionists and Orange Lodges after Derry.
The RUC should make clear that it does not wish to be a sectarian
Grant civil liberty in Derry and protest marches will be 'out'
Letter: Whatever may be said about nationalist and republican
politicians and their shortcomings, 'those who marched [on 5 October]
were not all politicians, but ordinary townsfolk. There were
the parents of young children, living in condemned houses and
festering tenements, homeless, jobless and hopeless..' When poor
housing conditions and gerrymandering are
eliminated, the civil rights marches will stop.
Students and basic rights
Letter: Those who argue that students who engage in protest
against injustice should have their grants withdrawn and studies
suspended are attacking freedom of speech.
Letter: John McAnerney has argued for a dissociation of the civil rights movement from nationalist and republican politics, but this is not to say that he is a unionist by political inclination.
Protest from Australia
Letter: 'There would be no protest marches if there were
nothing to protest about. Yet
characteristically ignored this, and raised instead the old bogey
of the IRA.' The correct response
is not police repression, which is in any case never used against
the Paisleyite faction, but the immediate
righting of wrongs.
Letter: The Northern Ireland government will find it difficult
to refute the truth of minority rule in Derry, police protection
for Unionist marches and force employed against an anti-Unionist
Letter: Civil rights marchers deliberately chose to march along a provocative route; their organisation is neither non-political nor non-sectarian, and is demonstrated by the adhesion to it of people like Currie and Fitt.
[see BT, 7 October, 'Republican inspired']
Two horrible words
Letter: Those who march under the civil rights banner have
demonstrated no Christian spirit or goodwill; their tactic is
violence and provocation.
Letter: Protestants are not employed by the authorities
in Ballycastle, but this is no bar to good community relations.
Civil rights in Eire
Letter: Civil rights agitation is simply a new tactic adopted
by the IRA. There is discrimination
against protestants in the Republic of Ireland, yet no marches
are directed against this phenomenon.
Letter: Civil rights leaders took the provocative step
of attempting to march through a protestant area, so should not
complain of the consequences of their breach of the law. Interfering
Westminster MPs are 'fanning embers which would have died out
with the growing prosperity of Ulster.'
Invite him here
Letter If Wilson is to interfere in
Northern Ireland affairs through his meeting with O'Neill,
should not O'Neill do the same with regard to Wilson and British
'Paisleyites treat City Hall as front office'
Report: The NILP candidate
for the Pottinger by-election feels that Unionists on Belfast
city council are afraid of the Paisleyites and consequently cannot
govern effectively. When 'unauthorised individuals' decide on
who can hold meetings, there is something wrong in the system;
most people do not support extremism, and a vote for the NILP
will be a vote for moderation.
Premier, party and people
Editorial: O'Neill should
continue to steer a centre course: 'if there is any weakness in
today's situation it stems from failure of the Unionist Party
as a whole to exhibit that degree of unanimity which the premier
is entitled to demand
Too few at the top have subscribed
to the principles of moderation.' The party must now decide 'what
minority grievances are justified and, if any, how and when are
they to be met?
A great deal of frustration can be removed
on all sides in Northern Ireland if the way ahead is clearly defined.'
Editorial: Events over the past ten days have probably
served to strengthen rather than weaken the power of moderates.
O'Neill's opponents should note
that there are more people for O'Neill than against. The prime
minister will not act to placate the extremists on either side;
a revision of the timetable for local government
reform would appear to be the best and most logical
Backing for reform
Leader: A survey of the attitudes of young people commissioned by the Belfast Telegraph indicates an encouraging level of support for the government's reformist policies. Greatest emphasis is given to the attraction of new industry to Northern Ireland, though housing is also deemed important. Reform of the local franchise is a less pressing concern. A majority do not believe that legislation against discrimination is necessary.
Support for O'Neill - but liberal approach not fast enough
Feature: [Some results of the survey on the attitudes of
youth commissioned by the Belfast Telegraph.]
Appeal to the students
Report: QUB Unionist Association
appeals for students to exercise maximum restraint on their forthcoming
Findings show problem to be social: Bradford
Report: Bradford claims that the findings of the Belfast
Telegraph-commissioned survey demonstrate that Northern Ireland's
problems are social rather than political in nature. Concern
does not focus on the franchise, but on housing and jobs. Recent
protest has been inspired 'by a political minority' not representative
of overall catholic opinion. Currie feels
that the findings would have been different had the survey been
conducted after the 5 October. Both Currie and McElroy
argue that O'Neill's has been the
politics of gesture rather than that of action.
Moderator's peace plan for Ulster
Report: Withers calls for a period of calm, involving a
careful analysis of grievances; where something is found to be
wrong, it must be set to rights. Conway welcomes recent statements
by the protestant churches calling for an examination
of conscience over recent events. He goes on: 'I beg those who
are in a position to determine government policy not to make the
mistake of seeing recent happenings in purely political terms.
The immediate causes of these events are social. They grow out
of the frustration of ordinary people who want houses and a fair
chance of a job and equitable representation.' He feels that
immediate action would have widespread support across the communities.
The Six-County Regional Executive of the Republican Clubs
blames the 'inflammatory statements' of leading Unionists for
a number of sectarian incidents in Belfast.
RUC doing top class job: Unionists
Report: Windsor Unionist Association expresses its support for O'Neill, Craig, and the RUC.
Bangor Unionists [sic] Association
Report: Bangor Unionist Association
passes a resolution supportive of the stand taken recently by
the Stormont cabinet.
16 October, 1968
Cool reception for O'Neill's Derry speech
Leader: The Nationalist Party decides to withdraw from its role as the official parliamentary opposition, and will take no part in the debate on events in Derry. O'Neill's appeal for restraint and his allusion to housing are received coolly by Nationalists, who feel that he is not offering enough, particularly on the issue of votes.
Nationalists withdraw as official opposition [Report]
Nationalists drop official opposition
Report: The Nationalist Party decides
to end its official status as Stormont opposition, until such
time as government demonstrates its sincerity in aiming to eliminate
grievances. Restraint on all sides is called for. O'Neill's
pledge on housing is considered insufficient, since it addresses
only this one issue. The NILP
calls for a 30-day suspension of all civil rights marches, during
which time O'Neill should state the government's position.
Housing plan gets ministry priority
Report: There is no indication that the prime minister's
call for calm and his pledge to accelerate the rate at which houses
are built is having much impact on the bitter climate that now
exists in Northern Ireland, following the Derry disturbances.
O'Neill tells MPs their first duty is to restore peace
Report: O'Neill feels that the ban on the civil rights march was made in the best interests of peace and order. He repudiates the picture of Northern Ireland that has been painted since the demonstration Housing remains the government's most pressing commitment, and a conference is called where all housing authorities will meet with the minister of development and O'Neill himself. Local government reform will take time, and the franchise cannot be considered in isolation from it. 'Those who seek to impose change upon us by violence or other forms of coercion' should be warned that 'there is no course of action less likely to commend their cause to a majority of our people. In the last resort, change has to be acceptable change. Living happily together in a mixed community depends not upon legislation but upon a growth of trust and confidence. Neither internal violence nor attempts to engineer outside pressure is likely to promote such trust or encourage such confidence.' Community relations have been set back by events in Derry, and further violence may destroy all improvements that have taken place for years to come.
Calm above all plea by premier
Leader: O'Neill calls for a period of calm, without which progress will be endangered. 'The place for political arguments is in parliament, not in the streets. Disorder is the way, not to equal rights, but to an equal share of misery and despair.' He feels that a distorted picture of Northern Ireland has been presented, but has called together a housing conference to consider ways in which the housing programme can be accelerated. 'I must warn those who seek to impose change upon us by violence or other forms of coercion that there is no course of action less likely to commend their cause to the majority of our people.' Change must be acceptable, and must not be engineered by outside pressure. Further violence will cause a retreat into traditionally entrenched positions. Opposition benches are empty during the debate, but for the presence of Murnaghan. Robert Porter says that those who genuinely believe in civil rights are being manipulated by agitators and republicans intent upon the state's destruction. He admits Derry's housing and unemployment problems, but urges that government is making real efforts to combat them. Murnaghan argues that anger and resentment have built up in view of the discrepancy between O'Neill's words and government's actions. Brooke commends the RUC's conduct in the face of provocation; he believes that there are genuine supporters of civil rights but that their organisation is under the influence of the IRA and communists.
[BT, 15 October]
Derry and Stormont
Editorial: The Nationalists were wise to withdraw from the 'farce of official opposition.' 'The question now is not whether Mr O'Neill will institute reforms, but how soon?' World opinion is now well-informed about Northern Ireland. O'Neill has talked of housing, but 'it has never been disputed that houses are being built by local authorities'; rather, the real question is one of allocation. Additionally, it is significant that O'Neill did not promise the democratic reform of local government, which is the root cause of the other problems.
Facing the problem
Editorial: The absence of the Nationalist Party
from Stormont is regrettable. Everyone is aware of the root causes
of the current wave of protest; 'is there to be no Unionist member
to rise above party loyalty and say how the peace of the Province
can be advanced?' Unionists should be asking if the police response
in Derry was not unduly heavy-handed. After all, it was the RUC's
actions which were 'a prime cause of the world publicity that
is now so resented.' The housing conference called by O'Neill
is a welcome step, 'but what is to prevent the prime minister
saying that the review of local government
will be pushed forward?' The slow pace of reform
lies at the bottom of nationalist frustrations. Change must not
only be acceptable to the 'givers,' but also to those to whom
it is being offered.
'Failure of moderate nationalists'
Report: A Belfast meeting is told that moderate nationalists,
by eschewing civil disobedience, will not prevent but merely postpone
its outbreak. By failing to 'capture the extreme wing,' they
lose their ability to influence the extra-parliamentary opposition
towards a more moderate course of action.
McAteer is taking a break from politics
Report: Though the Nationalist Party
has ended its role as official opposition party at Stormont, the
fact that it will continue to attend parliament would seem to
indicate that advocates of civil disobedience within its ranks
are in a minority. Murnaghan has tabled a question in the commons
on Craig's instructions to police over Derry.
The DCAC demonstration will go ahead, with members of the Northern
Ireland Society of Labour Lawyers
acting as observers. Bailie claims that the departure of the
Nationalists from their official opposition role is a blow to
moderate politics; he hopes that it will not deflect O'Neill
from his policies. Over 50 Labour MPs at Westminster demand a
meeting of the parliamentary Labour Party to discuss Northern
Ireland. Rose is to ask Wilson to remove
the RUC from the control of the
Northern Ireland ministry of home affairs.
Craig names 'rebel leaders'
Leader: A motion condemning the actions of the civil rights protesters in Derry and supportive of police handling of the situation is passed at Stormont, where no opposition members are present. Craig asserts that the march was a provocative display undertaken outside traditional nationalist areas. He argues that NICRA consists largely of members of the DHAC, the majority of these also belonging to the Connolly Association; of the Republican party, including members of the IRA and Sinn Féin; of the Young Socialists; and of the Communist Party. The police, he feels, did not use force until they were attacked, and he argues that most injuries were caused by missiles rather than police batons. The intention of some was clearly the destabilisation of the constitution through violence. Faulkner stresses the government's positive economic programme for Derry, and feels that damage has been done to Northern Ireland's economic prospects by recent political developments.
Unionist MP blames press for 'fanning Derry flames'
Report: Robert Porter is critical of those who 'imperilled' community relations in Derry and decries the actions of elements less interested in human rights than in attacking the Northern Ireland state. He goes on to criticise the media: 'members of the press, television and radio must accept a good deal of the responsibility for fanning the emotional flame lit that afternoon.' He suggests that not only rights, but also obligations, must be respected. He feels that genuine civil rights leaders organised an event they could not control, and became 'the tools of agitators and republicans.' He criticises Currie and Fitt for supposedly advocating violence. He acknowledges the problems associated with housing and unemployment in Derry. Murnaghan calls on Unionists to accept the existence of genuine minority frustration at the many government words, but lack of corresponding actions of recent years. Brooke praises the RUC's conduct under 'such appalling provocation,' and insists that the civil rights movement - even if not ostensibly - is in the hands of IRA and communist elements intent upon causing violence. He feels that violence was perpetrated not by Derry's inhabitants but by outsiders, and criticises the media's initial strong sympathy for something they did not at that stage understand.
[IN, NL, 17 October]
NILP want parades to 'wait'
Report: The NILP sends a letter to O'Neill calling on all parties to ask for a suspension of civil rights marches for 30 days, a period during which O'Neill will meet Wilson, and the government will publish recommendations on citizens' rights. Bradford claims that the Unionist Party is firmly behind the government's stand on Derry.
'Cool off for 30 days' suggests Labour [Report]
Today's civil rights march re-routed
Report: Police re-route the planned People's Democracy march in Belfast, a decision which the body reluctantly accepts.
Rights march on, with RUC protection
Report: The PD march, its organisers accepting a change
to its proposed route of procession, will now go ahead with police
Paisley meetings called off
Report: In view of the re-routing of the PD march, Paisley
calls off the UCDC
2,000 in protest march to City Hall
Report: The PD march in Belfast is passes off peacefully, with the Paisleyite counter-demonstration cancelled in light of its re-routing.
[IN, NL, 17 October]
We are an autonomous body - CRA
Report: The CRA
emphasises that it is not under the control of any other group
or organisation, and restates the original aims of the Derry march,
and the body's concern over the ban, police brutality, and the
charging of some organisers in a special police court.
When Faulkner led Orangemen on Longstone Road
Letter: An Irish News article dating from 1955 proves
that Faulkner led Orangemen down the nationalist
Unemployment in Six Counties
Letter: Discrimination in housing
is an issue that has received much coverage; but discrimination
in employment deserves more attention than it
The case for abstention
Letter: The Nationalist Party should
boycott Stormont, and 'clear the way for a civil disobedience
campaign which will have the support of all who oppose the Unionist
dictatorship in the Six Counties.'
Call to PM for more leadership
[see IN, 14 October, Open letter to prime minister urges
'Baton festival in Northern Ireland'
Letter: Recent pictures and reports on events in Northern
Ireland can only severely damage Northern Ireland's tourist market.
Letter from catholics
Letter: Problems do exist in Derry, and they should not
be debated across the traditional party divide, but viewed by
every political grouping as a moral issue. The alternative, a
return to civil conflict, is too terrible to contemplate. The
march of 5 October was making just demands and should not have
been banned. The status quo should no longer be defended;
a liberalising movement is necessary.
Ashamed of Frost affair
Letter: The bickering and shouting that was the substitute
for debate on the recent UTV programme on Northern Ireland was
Mr Fitt answers critic
Letter: 'Apparent goodwill and polite, well-meaning gestures are not enough. The only lasting basis for communal goodwill rests upon social justice and welfare.' Fitt won his west Belfast seat on a civil rights platform, and is thus mandated to fight 'social injustice and discrimination'; he does not lead the civil rights movement, but is duty-bound to participate in civil rights marches. Craig and the government are the enemies of truth and justice.
Love thy neighbour
Letter: It should be accepted that there is no great conspiracy
against the constitution; people should act fairly towards one
another, and be seen to do so.
Visitor writes to PM [Letter]
[see BT, 14 October, A protest to the PM]
Letter: Lynch has no right to interfere
in Northern Ireland affairs. The police acted with some restraint
The RCs never had it so good
Letter: Recent demonstrations and counter-demonstrations
are beneath contempt, and the police have acted wisely. Catholics
are in a better position then ever, but are being poisoned by
Letter: Discrimination is not a problem
in Northern Ireland; catholics enjoy their fair share in its economic
life. Nationalist MPs are merely stirring up trouble. As for
student demonstrators, 'if is for learning they have their grants,
not smashing and causing inconvenience to the very people who
are paying the grants.'
Rights in Spain
Letter: No-one condemns the denial to protestants in Spain
of their civil rights, but Northern Ireland has had to 'endure
a planned campaign of malicious slander, vilification and blackening
no other country has to endure.' Absorption into an all-Ireland
republic must be resisted.
IRA denies part in museum fire, threat to London buildings
Report: The Irish Republican Publicity Bureau denies IRA responsibility for a fire at the British Museum, and makes clear the illegitimacy of the claim that the organisation is targeting London buildings.
Ulster Office target for IRA
Belfast Unionists will resist reform through unjustified fear
Report: Unionists, according to political observers, are
likely to resist calls for the franchise in local government
to be extended to all persons over the age of 21, in view of fears
that their party would lose control of a number of local authorities
However, many local authorities are 'so well gerrymandered' that
this need not necessarily be the case; and even if control were
to be lost, Unionism would still exercise
ultimate control over local authorities from Stormont. If O'Neill
were to introduce such reforms, he 'would definitely
win the admiration of fair-minded people everywhere' The CRA
says that it is not attempting to overthrow Stormont; 'The homeless
and the unemployed, especially in Derry, were not so much concerned
with the ending of partition as they were with the basic human
needs of getting a decent home to live in and a job.' Unionists
have really very little to fear from real reform; it would do
more than any conciliatory speech to improve community relations.
Unionists back Craig
Report: A meeting of the parliamentary Unionist Party
backs Craig's decision with regard to the
5 October civil rights march. Craig presents evidence as to its
composition. He also receives backing from the Derry and Foyle
Call for an independent inquiry
Report: A motion is to be put to Belfast city council criticising the actions of Craig and of the RUC in Derry, and calling for an independent inquiry into events there.
[NL, 15 October]
Delegation from Labour Lawyers will be there
Report: A delegation from the Society of Labour Lawyers
will be at the forthcoming Derry protest.
Labour Lawyers shocked at denial of civil rights, police methods
Report: The Northern Ireland Society of Labour Lawyers
calls for an inquiry by Callaghan into
'the causes underlying the present unrest in Northern Ireland
relating to peace and order, local government
franchise, housing, into the spending of public funds granted
by the United Kingdom government to the Northern Ireland government
and generally into how far the existing laws are administered
so as to discriminate against certain sections of the community.'
If the Stormont government does not implement any such recommendations,
then it is the duty of the government at Westminster to do so
There should be no waiting 'until civil war or disorder on a
large scale actually breaks out.'
'Riots must not delay progress'
Report: The Belfast branch of the United Nations Association condemns violence but asserts the need for government to defend the right to demonstrate, subject to considerations of law and order. In this light, the legitimacy of the tactic of counter-demonstration should be examined, since it is designed to curtail freedom of protest. Action must be taken rather than words spoken, and while no instant miracle solution to Northern Ireland's problems is to be expected, injustices must be addressed.
[IN, 18 October]
Dungannon housing allocation
Report: A proposal that time spent on the waiting list
should play a part in deciding housing allocations
is defeated on Dungannon UDC. The accusation
that religion rather than need is the criterion by which houses
are allocated is made by an opposition councillor.
17 October, 1968
Intervene in North - ILP to Wilson
Report: Irish Labour leader, Brendan Corish, has asked
Wilson to intervene in Northern Ireland.
The Council of Labour is to meet to discuss evidence of police
brutality in Derry assembled by the Northern Ireland Society of
People's Democracy is pleased with Mr Craig
Report: The PD march in Belfast is viewed as a success. The Paisleyite counter-demonstration was cancelled due to the re-routing of the PD march At the City Hall, marchers are met by opponents who, offered a megaphone to put their arguments, refuse to oblige. The PD programme encompasses 'one-man-one-vote; houses on need; jobs on merit; fair boundaries and repeal of the Special Powers Act.' The cross-community nature of the movement is stressed. Marches are to be considered a secondary activity for the PD; it will concentrate on fact-finding exercises. An inquiry into the Derry clashes is desired.
Students' march peaceful
Report: The demand for free speech is also a part of the PD's programme.
[BT, 16 October]
Revolt on the campus
Editorial: 'Whether one agrees or disagrees with the objects
of the [student] demonstration in Belfast yesterday, its comparative
mildness does more to create support for its cause than a manning
of the barricades.'
Civil rights members picket school
Report: A Strabane civil rights group pickets
the school at which the chairman of the local council, who refused
to allow debate on events in Derry, is a teacher.
'Publicise local govt reform plan'
Report: An Andersonstown meeting is told that the government
should publicise its plans for local government
reform. The gathering is also told that there is
no question of government trying to gerrymander new boundaries.
Nationalists boycott a road safety meeting
Report: Some nationalist members fail to attend a Derry
Road Safety Committee meeting, as a gesture of protest against
recent occurrences in the city. The Committee chairman expresses
the feeling that road safety should not be a political issue.
Rally to seek 'rights' for Ulster
Report: British government action on Northern Ireland will be called for at a forthcoming London rally by the Movement for Colonial Freedom. Demands will include the call for a bill of rights and a commission of inquiry into police brutality
[IN, 18 October]
Lecture on prejudice
Report: A lecture dealing with the subject of prejudice
will be held at Queen's University.
A busy day for Mr Currie in England
Report: Currie is flying to England
to speak at several meetings on civil rights.
INF strongly condemn police brutality
Report: The executive committee of the Irish National Foresters
condemns police brutality in Derry and writes to Wilson
and Lynch calling for their intervention.
'Exercise restraint' call
Report: A committee of the presbyterian church calls for restraint, and deplores the use of religious affiliation to promote political causes Religion should instead be applied in pursuit of justice, and attempts should be made to understand and remedy mutual grievances.
Explore mutual fears - call [Report]
Bishops and McAteer favour 'fears talks' moves
Report: A call by the Government Committee of the presbyterian church for round-table discussions on recent events receives a welcome from McAteer and from the catholic bishops. The resolution declares the presbyterian church 'ready to meet with others, and in particular with representatives of our Roman catholic fellow countrymen, to explore in Christian charity our mutual fears and grievances,' and calls for restraint and understanding. Government should address itself 'not just to individual incidents but to their causes, economic, social and political.'
[IN, NL, 18 October]
Votes for all says Unionist candidate
Report: Richard Ferguson, Unionist candidate for south
Antrim, calls for one-man-one-vote in local elections. 'If there
be injustice or inequality in Londonderry it must be put right,
not because of the riot, not because of the possibility of intervention
by the British government, but in order to preserve the integrity
and good name of Northern Ireland.'
Rights walk 'deprived disabled'
Report: A Belfast Unionist Association
is told that the student demonstration that took place in Belfast
created conditions that made it impossible for '50 or 60 disabled
people' to receive 'their regular hospital treatment.'
Support for Craig
Summary: Cromac Unionist Association
expresses its support for Craig and the RUC.
BBC replies to critics of report on Ulster
Report: Chairman of the BBC's board of governors, Lord Hill, answers criticisms of the organisation's coverage of the Derry disturbances made by Westminster Unionist MPs. He admits factual error in some coverage, which however he sees as having been predominantly fair in character.
[NL, 18 October]
'No' to ultimatum
Leader: O'Neill welcomes the suggestion of a cooling-off period put forward by the NILP, but rejects the idea that his government should be handed any ultimatum. The DCAC march will go ahead as planned in Derry, and intervention from the authorities appears unlikely. Although the motion supportive of government received approval at Stormont, some Unionists did not look at underlying causes of unrest. Bessie Maconachie MP, for example, calls for one-man-one-vote in local elections. Voices for reform are however not believed to carry much influence with government. O'Neill denies the existence of a ban on free speech, arguing that civil rights marchers were free to process through many parts of Derry but that some 'decided to flout the law and to stage a highly provocative confrontation with the police.' The executive council of the Irish National Foresters condemns 'police brutality' in Derry.
[IN, NL, 18 October]
Air of unrealism as Craig 'defends' on Derry
Report: No opposition members appear at Stormont, where the government passes a motion in condemnation of the actions of the civil rights protesters in Derry and in support of police measures. Craig argues that the march was provocative because it took place outside traditional nationalist areas. He argues that NICRA consists largely of members of the DHAC, the majority of these also belonging to the Connolly Association; of the Republican party, including members of the IRA and Sinn Féin; of the Young Socialists; and of the Communist Party. The police are said to have given the marchers 'considerable latitude' and they did not retaliate until they had 'endured physical attack.' The intention of some was clearly the destabilisation of the constitution through violence. Craig feels that the Nationalist and Republican Labour Parties must share in the responsibility for events in Derry. Edmund Warnock maintains that government has been somewhat insensitive towards the minority, and should have - and still should - institute an inquiry into the grievances expressed by the minority. No sacrifice of principle would be involved in such an investigation. Many of the minority have lost much faith in the democratic system; the government should act to remedy this. Faulkner stresses the government's positive economic programme for Derry, and feels that 'great harm' is done by 'irresponsible political action.' He believes that troublemakers capitalise on situations for their own political ends. Phelim O'Neill feels that nine out of every ten marches in Northern Ireland are provocative, and all should be banned.
Root cause of Derry riots
Report: Craig points to the involvement of a revolutionary socialist group in the Derry civil rights march. Faulkner talks of the existence of trouble-making elements who wish to harness social problems to their own narrow political ends. Fitzsimmons says that community co-operation does not suit the aims of such agitators. Phelim O'Neill says that Craig was right to impose a partial ban on the Derry parade.
Gun a step nearer, warns Craig
Report: Craig criticises disruptive elements, who wish to overthrow the Northern Ireland state. He feels that Currie's speeches have incited unlawful activity and civil disobedience. Fitt has also been 'irresponsible and provocative.' He congratulates the RUC and says that many injuries were caused not by police actions but by stones and bottles thrown during the clashes. Police intervention prevented greater bloodshed; certain elements had planned a riot. The police were stoned by the demonstrators before they moved in to break up the crowd. Injuries were slight, according to the local hospital. Anderson claims that the route chosen for the march was deliberately provocative, and that police intervention prevented possible deaths. Craig emphasises that he was not banning free assembly; rather, he restricted marchers from taking a specific route. The involvement of subversive and IRA elements in the civil rights movements makes a nonsense of its claims to be non-sectarian and non political. John McQuade praises police handling of a riotous mob. Taylor claims that the sole object of the march was the creation of civil disorder.
[BT, 16 October]
Derry events opened eyes of sensible men -Phelim O'Neill
Report: Phelim O'Neill claims that
both unionism and nationalism contain 'extreme elements
have vested interest in anarchy.' Derry, he believes, has made
people aware of the dangers posed by extremism. It is a shame
that marchers expressing contrary opinions are not tolerated by
either section of the Northern Ireland community, but since this
is the case, fairness should be exercised in banning provocative
marches on all sides. 'There is no road whatever to take except
the road to reconciliation.' Faulkner denies
the practice of discrimination in employment.
A job and a house, rather than abstract civil rights, are what
will make people happy. Warnock defends Craig's
actions, but feels that Terence O'Neill has perhaps been overly
timid in approaching reform. McQuade attacks Currie,
Fitt and McAteer for using
their positions to break the law, and argues that students engaging
in sit-down demonstrations should have their grants withdrawn.
He criticises the government policy of appeasement as futile.
Maconachie calls for one-man-one-vote at the local government
level. Anderson calls on Derry people to come together; he denies
allegations of discrimination in employment and housing. Fitzsimmons
talks of 'wreckers and agitators,' who he says are out to sabotage
improving community relations.
Mr Craig and his ban
Editorial: Craig in his speech at
Stormont concentrated on the presence of various political groupings
on the civil rights march, but ignored the reasons why people
were protesting He seems to feel that every minority grievance
should be resisted. Craig may try to contain the civil rights
movement, but the grievances which it reflects will not go away.
A 'bold and radical' strategy from Unionism
is now required - and it must be administered swiftly.
Editorial: A few Unionists did take the opportunity of
the Stormont debate on recent events to examine their causes objectively,
'but they were voices arguing in a wilderness of self-righteousness.'
Craig 'had a duty to attempt to analyse
the root causes of the disorder rationally. Instead, he could
see nothing except militancy in the Nationalist Party
and a conspiracy by the Irish Workers['] Group
struck a truer note when he again appealed to the prime minister
for "greater magnanimity and generosity from an immensely
strong government to a relatively weak opposition".' Community
relations cannot be improved while such
problems remain unaddressed. The government is not only ignoring
the concerns of nationalists, but of a large section of moderate
Restoring the balance
Comment: 'The level of Roman catholic discontent is not
so great in Northern Ireland as to provoke revolt or explosion,
that there are outlets to air grievances, and that
something is done about them at a recognisable pace.' O'Neill's
position may come under threat from his own extremists, but on
the other hand, they may think twice about deposing him, realising
that his fall might make British intervention all the more likely.
Workers' group 'now defunct'
Report: Rory MacShane refutes allegations made by Craig about his political activities and contends that they are part of an attempt to smear the name of the civil rights movement, 'which was responsible, well-conducted, non-violent and "commands considerable support from persons of all political persuasions".' McAnerney dismisses similar allegations made with reference to the membership of NICRA.
[IN, 18 October]
Drop the minister
Letter: 'Regardless of the right[s] of the [Derry] demonstration
as such, the nauseous assertions by Mr Craig
come pretty near the Nazi technique of "the big lie well
told".' His statements make it difficult for his government
to claim a British allegiance. Craig should be dismissed; he
cannot expect people to accept the police as 'a law unto themselves.'
An ill wind
Letter: Many of Unionism's opponents
have supported O'Neill in his efforts
to build a better Northern Ireland; now he must engage in this
Letter: Election figures for Derry provided by Taylor are inaccurate; the Nationalist Party secured the top poll.
[see IN, NL, 18 October]
No more marches
Letter: Civil rights issues have received an airing and
further marches will promote the cause only of the extremists
on both sides. Every 'legitimate institution' should be used
'to see that right is done.'
Letter: Fitzsimmons' figures
on Derry housing are rather misleading, in that they suggest a
better record on the part of the corporation than is in fact the
Who are sponsors of Derry 'sit-down'?
Letter: One might legitimately ask who it was who elected
the DCAC members. 'I agree that our city is in trouble and all
is not well, but surely this is the time for all right-thinking
citizens to come forward
who have no political bias nor [are]
active members of any political party.' Politics has let Derry
down; the corporation should be disbanded and a commissioner appointed
in its place.
Why students sat down
Letter: QUB students on their march consistently acted
with responsibility in re-routing their march to avoid Paisleyite
demonstrators, and in sitting down rather than charging a police
cordon that had been moved in to prevent a confrontation with
Paisley's relocated counter-demonstration.
Queen's press ban was discourtesy to visitor
Letter: The ban on press attendance at the lecture given
recently by O'Brien on civil disobedience should not have been
imposed by the university.
Students and Captain Long
Letter: Students did not deny Long his freedom of speech
at a recent Queen's University
meeting. Irresponsible student behaviour, where it exists, is
damaging to the civil rights movement; this however was not an
instance of it.
These students are 'just too well off'
Letter: 'Community relations
have been set back half a century' by recent events, and the student
protesters are the most disgusting of all, since students are
living on tax-payers.'
Civil servants wait
Letter: Paisley and Cunningham
were right to suspect efforts towards co-operation with Lynch.
The police are also to be commended for their actions in Derry.
MP on her knees
Letter: Murnaghan could find better uses for her time than
becoming involved in a sit-down protest 'against Ulster.'
Letter: McAteer was irresponsible
in leading a demonstration that he must have known would damage
Derry's image and therefore they city's economic life.
Letter: 'The so-called civil rights march in Londonderry
was organised by a front of Republican, Liberal, Nationalist and
Communist elements to secure conditions suitable for a renewal
of a campaign by the illegal IRA movement
is sad that three British Labour MPs should by their attendance,
have given them support.' British interference may be met by
Letter: Who has stopped to consider those people whose
property was damaged by looting during the Derry disturbances?
Catholics receive a fair deal in Northern Ireland: they receive
welfare benefits and are employed in the civil service and Post
Office. The Northern Ireland government should produce statistics
clarifying these facts, thus improving its image. O'Neill's
policies deserve support.
18 October, 1968
Early Westminster debate on North expected - Fitt
Report: Fitt feels that a debate on Northern
Ireland will take place at Westminster immediately after O'Neill
has met Wilson. NICRA
challenges Craig to produce evidence that
it is under the control of subversive groups.
Democratic rights for North, call
Report: A call for British government action will be made at a London rally by the Movement for Colonial Freedom. The demands will include the call for a bill of rights for Northern Ireland, and a commission of inquiry into police brutality
London rally speakers [Report]
Call for a clear-cut step to redress wrongs
Report: A memorandum is drawn up by the Belfast branch of the United Nations Association, calling for the maintenance of the right to peaceful demonstration and questioning the wisdom of permitting counter-demonstrations. Violence is condemned, but the presence of injustice, it is claimed, but be recognised and its sources dealt with. Government must also 'act as well as talk in terms of social justice.'
[NL, 16 October]
Civil rights debate at CBPPU hall
Report: The Belfast Christian Brothers Past Pupils' Union
Literary and Debating Society is to hold a debate on the motion
'that parliamentary democracy has failed to establish civil rights
in Northern Ireland.'
Students told the facts by Mr Currie
Report: Currie, speaking at Manchester
University, says that Derry has communicated the true situation
in Northern Ireland to people in Britain. He expresses disappointment
that Wilson has so far failed to take action,
specifically on a Royal Commission and the extension of the Race
Relations Act. Unionists are 'paying lip-service to British ideals
Craig was 'factually inaccurate, politically irresponsible'
Report: Craig has made allegations against student Rory MacShane, which MacShane refutes, arguing that Craig is attempting to smear the good name of the CRA.
[BT, 17 October]
Northern Ireland making the news in United States
Report: 'All in all, Northern Ireland is getting a very
bad press in the United States.'
Lord Hill replies to criticism
Report: The chairman of the BBC board of governors replies to criticism made by two Westminster Unionist MPs of the organisation's coverage of the Derry disturbances. Flaws in the coverage are admitted, but it is generally seen to have been fair.
[BT, 17 October]
Blunt report backs O'Neill
Comment: British press reaction to events in Derry is somewhat
less frenetic at present, but the situation in Northern Ireland
has not been forgotten. An Economist article praises O'Neill
but warns that British public opinion will not stand for continuing
intransigence from the hard-liners. Meanwhile, Fitt
appears likely to raise Northern Ireland issues at Westminster.
Coverage by press 'did lot of damage'
Report: Magowan criticises what he sees as biased press
coverage of recent events.
TV cameramen are 'roving vultures' says Unionist MP
Report: The Marquis of Hamilton criticises the media for
its sensation-seeking - the consideration as news-worthy only
of those stories relating to conflict. He feels that the achievements
of Northern Ireland, especially in regard to improved community
relations, deserve greater emphasis.
The managing director of UTV defends the reporting of recent
'Derry neglected' charges denied
Report: Pounder, in a letter to the London Evening Standard,
refutes allegations that the Northern Ireland government has neglected
its responsibilities in Derry. He raises the government's housing
and industrial record, and talks of the climate of improved community
relations. 'All that interfering busybodies,
well-intentioned or not, can achieve is to create discord amongst
the people of Ulster.'
Outsiders 'cannot interfere'
Report: The Ulster Young Unionist Council
chairman condemns any attempt at outside interference in Northern
Ireland, and attacks the idea of an inquiry into events in Derry
as ludicrous. He expresses disappointment at the call by Queen's
University Young Unionists for
Editorial: Craig should not take the
bait being dangled before him by imposing a ban on the legitimate
DCAC demonstration in Derry simply because of the proposed counter-demonstration
by the Loyal Citizens of Ulster. Derry would be better off with
no demonstrations at all.
2 Derry rallies
Leader: A protest meeting is organised by a group calling
itself the Loyal Citizens of Ulster, to coincide with the sit-down
protest organised by the DCAC. The Derry Labour Party calls for
a civil rights meeting free from disorder. Representatives of
the Belfast Council of Churches meet with Craig
to discuss recent events.
O'Neill will not commit himself before seeing Wilson
Report: O'Neill writes to
the NILP to say that, while
he welcomes the idea of a cooling-off period, he will not commit
his government to make any statement on the situation in Northern
Ireland with regard to civil rights within a prescribed time limit.
He feels that the law should have been adhered to, especially
by MPs, who ought to be responsible citizens. He also replies
to the Newry Trades Union Council, denying that there
has been any kind of ban on free speech. He stresses that demonstrators
were entitled to freedom of expression within the law. 'The responsibility
for the disturbances which took place must rest firmly upon the
shoulders of those who decided to flout the law and to stage a
highly provocative confrontation with the police.'
O'Neill rejects Boyd plea [Report]
[BT, 17 October]
PM waits for Wilson signal
Report: No date has yet been fixed for the proposed O'Neill-Wilson
meeting. Rory MacShane, president-elect of the QUB Students'
Representative Council, has denied allegations made by Craig
about his political affiliations. Derry Labour Party has called
for peaceful participation in the forthcoming Guildhall Square
civil rights protest. A peaceful demonstration will show that
it was not the civil rights marchers on 5 October who started
No date fixed for Ulster debate
Report: It has not yet been decided when a debate on Northern
Ireland will be held at Westminster.
Prime minister replies to his critics
Report: O'Neill argues, in
response to criticism from all sides, that he cannot be expected
to give a lead in a direction in which people are not prepared
Mr Faulkner talks 'politics' at the accountants' dinner
Report: Faulkner says that while much is still to be done in Northern Ireland, a great deal has already been achieved. He accepts that more well-paid jobs and better housing are required, but he 'utterly and categorically' rejects allegations that the west of Northern Ireland and Derry in particular have been neglected by the government. Also, while Derry does have a serious housing shortage, the government is doing something about it. A third of its houses have been built since the war, and more are on the way.
Neglect in Derry denied
Report: Faulkner refutes allegations
that housing and employment have been neglected
by government in the west of Northern Ireland. He talks of the
housing programme for Derry, and argues that progress in the city
has been placed in jeopardy by the behaviour of 'certain elements.'
Porter explains 'one man one vote'
Report: Robert Porter tells a Birmingham University meeting
that one-man-one-vote was not introduced in Britain as a democratic
reform, but to give soldiers returning from war the
vote. He denies discrimination and speaks
of the government's housing record. Currie
says that recent events have educated the British public as to
the unacceptable situation in Northern Ireland; he is critical
of Wilson's failure to intervene.
Policy of generosity 'given the go-ahead'
Report: Bailie says that the government can afford to extend its generosity to the underprivileged, and must do so if it is to restore the goodwill of Britain. He warns of the dangers inherent in a UDI mentality for the Northern Ireland constitution.
Next week - normality?
Comment: 'Alas, after a commons debate made hollow by absence
of opposition, one is forced to the conclusion that the realistic
attitudes of a few [Unionist MPs] are tragically outweighed by
the obstinacy, and indeed, the eccentricity, of others,' who have
attempted to blame the press for exacerbating the situation.
Invitation to talks on 'mutual fears and grievances'
Report: The presbyterian church has invited political and religious leaders to meet 'to explore in Christian charity our mutual fears and grievances.' The sentiment is expressed by Rev Andrew Weir that 'we are concerned about the bad feeling in the community caused because people won't talk to each other. Often, instead, they talk at images of each other.'
Churches meeting welcomed
[BT, 17 October]
Protests must stay within limits
Report: The QUB Christian Union is told that violent protest is only likely to spark a spiral of further violence. 'The Christian should not be a party to actions which compel the government to defend its legal authority with force.' He goes on to say that 'all reforms must take time. If they were justified they got there in the end.' He calls for the practise of tolerance.
There's a limit to protest, says Catherwood
Report: A meeting of the QUB Christian Union is told that
legal protest should work through legal channels. Reforms
take time, but 'most of them get there in the end.' A violent
backlash is the inevitable result of any considerable challenge
to law and order.
Like Hallowe'en sans rhymers and fireworks
Comment: The absence of the Nationalist Party
from Stormont is a blow for democracy; no real debate on events
in Derry was conducted. Some Unionists are uneasy at the Nationalist
absence. The press has been accused of an unhelpful response
to the Derry events. Phelim O'Neill feels
that recent events have demonstrated the necessity of a moderate
course that would 'overcome this idiotic cleavage.'
Union Jack is CRA flag
Letter: 'For those of us who have taken a justifiable pride
in British democracy it is humiliating to see its proud emblem
become a banner for reaction, intolerance and bigotry.' The CRA's
demands are for the just entitlements of any British citizen,
and the Association should proudly fly the Union Jack in recognition
of these entitlements.
Men of the west support Derry
Letter: A civil rights rally will be held in Sligo.
Election figures [Letter]
Derry vote figures [Letter]
[see BT, 17 October, Elections]
Minister of affrays
Letter: The call by Lisburn Young Unionists
for the arrest of all those MPs present at the Derry demonstration
on 5 October shows Unionism at a new low.
Who would not?
Letter: Why did Craig not take the
actions necessary to secure safe passage for the civil rights
marchers in Derry and Belfast instead of permitting threats and
counter-demonstrations to affect his decision?
It's time to change local government franchise
Letter: Democratic principles apply to Stormont elections
and in Britain; why should they not be extended to local government
in Northern Ireland?
Letter: Even if Stormont is unconcerned about justice,
it should at least attempt a few basic constructive reforms,
if only for the sake of Northern Ireland's image abroad.
PM playing a waiting game
Letter: O'Neill is naïve
if he believes that gesture politics has improved community relations.
He is obviously hoping that he can bide his time until a Conservative
government is returned at Westminster. Sectarian protestant marches
are permitted to pass through catholic areas but, when the situation
is reversed, bans are imposed.
Letter: Politicians are too readily viewing Derry events
in political terms. A public inquiry should be held into allegations
of injustice: if they are unfounded, all to the good; if not,
then they should be addressed 'without political or religious
'Danger area' convention
Letter: Government claims that there exists in Northern
Ireland a convention whereby catholics do not march through protestant
areas, and vice versa. This is untrue, since protestant
marches have in the past processed through catholic areas. Police
protection has been afforded to such marches. This is a clear
demonstration of deep government hypocrisy. The government always
deflects criticism from its own difficulties by finding a bogeyman
with which to scare the electorate.
Letter: People in the USA have been shocked by events in
Northern Ireland; it is difficult to credit that such events can
still occur in a country that claims to be Christian.
Letter: Northern Ireland's problems could be solved by
the dissolution of Stormont, with Northern Ireland representatives
taking their seats at Westminster.
Letter: 'The new organisation ironically named the People's
Democracy is undoubtedly an insidious backlash of rabble-rousers
who are determined to usurp and manipulate the existing students
organisation which was making a serious if misguided attempt to
rectify unjust political practices
Protest, students, by
all means, but don't let your democratic principles be prostituted
by political demagogues, who will discard you as soon as they
become firmly entrenched and in control of your organisation.'
Live as a community
Letter: The press has given publicity to troublemakers
like Fitt, Paisley,
and marching hooligans. The great majority of people desire no
trouble, and the housing problem can be largely rectified by the
introduction of a fair points system.
Marchers come first
Letter: The student marchers in Belfast were inconsiderate;
ambulances were required in case of casualties from the demonstration,
and could thus not be put to their normal use.
Letter: Bradford performed well in the recent TV debate
on Northern Ireland. The same cannot however be said of his opponents.
Letter: Fitt seems determined to disturb
the peace in Northern Ireland. 'The courageous minister of home
affairs ought to be backed up by a larger and less restrained
force than our valiant police.'
'I am sick and tired of the demonstrators'
Letter: Students may well have required police protection
had they followed their original route through a loyalist area,
and not simply from Paisleyite elements.
Queen's University is becoming
'a hot-bed for republicanism.'
Letter: Students' facilities at Queen's University
have been constructed at the ratepayers' expense; it is insolent
for the students to demonstrate for civil rights when their own
selfishness has deprived children of playing space.
Letter: Students who involve themselves in silly demonstrations
should have their grants withdrawn.
Letter: Complaints are forever heard about protestant extremism.
What about catholic extremists? The supposedly non-political,
non-sectarian civil rights march had an avowedly
political leadership, and was out to destroy the Northern Ireland
government. Craig's stand against the demonstration
Letter: Craig's stated reasons for
his 5 October ban have been substantiated by McCann's own recent
words: 'What happened in Derry was not a riot but an uprising
undertaken not by hooligans, but by rebels.' This is not the
'truth' that is being peddled by the press about Derry.
Letter: It would appear that there is a communist conspiracy
to seize Northern Ireland.
19 October, 1968
Reforms rally in Derry to go ahead as planned
Leader: The civil rights rally in Derry's Guildhall Square will go ahead; a government ban has been imposed on a planed counter-demonstration by the 'Loyal Citizens of Ulster' on Derry's walls. The DCAC expects a peaceful meeting, with police co-operation. It is expected that speakers will concentrate on franchise and boundary reform in local elections. The Northern Ireland Society of Labour Lawyers is sending observers to the city to advise the DCAC on rights to peacefully demonstrate. The Derry Labour Party calls for peaceful demonstration as the most effective weapon against the government; the Loyal Citizens of Ulster issue a statement: 'all those who value their British heritage are asked to show their contempt for the coat-trailing of disloyal elements in Derry tomorrow by keeping off the streets and keeping window blinds down until 5 pm.'
Counter protest in Derry banned [Leader]
400 sit down
Leader: There is a disappointing turn-out at the DCAC sit-down
demonstration in Derry's Guildhall Square.
Rally advised to be calm
Report: The Northern Ireland Society of Labour Lawyers
asks Derry demonstrators to remain calm for their sit-down protest.
The DCAC is viewed as a responsible body; people should not allow
themselves to be provoked.
O'Neill hopes 'good sense' will prevail
Report: O'Neill hopes that no disturbances will result from the forthcoming Derry demonstration.
Answer from men who were there
Report: The Belfast and District Branch of the National Union of Journalists refutes suggestions that the press has distorted through its coverage the events in Derry on 5 October.
Journalists reject allegations [Report]
Derry events: newsmen hit back at critics
Report: Further, it is suggested that politicians are attempting
'to divert attention from their own inadequacies and shortcomings.'
Presbyterian leaders praise O'Neill's courage
Report: O'Neill receives a letter from the clerk of the presbyterian General Assembly expressing sympathy for the 'rather lonely and difficult position' that the prime minister faces. He is said to have shown courage in sticking to what may be unpopular reforms. Religion is seen as having been used as a political tool rather than a means of social improvement. Presbyterian leaders are ready to meet with those of other religious persuasions 'to explore in Christian charity out mutual fears and grievances.' Great restraint must now be exercised by all sides if progress is to be made.
[NL, 21 October]
Let us all meet - church
Report: Church and political leaders are
considering the invitation by the presbyterian
church to discussions on the present situation. The church has
expressed its hopes that O'Neill
will be able to overcome practical political considerations to
take any actions that are necessary.
Faulkner hits at religion and politics link
Report: Faulkner says that efforts are being made to attract industry to the northwest and that the false impression of conditions there given by the press must be combated.
Outworn nonsense - minister [Report]
Clashes set clock back - Pounder
Report: Pounder tells an English Conservative audience
that community relations in Northern
Ireland have been set back by events in Derry. Progress can be
endangered by 'hostile propagandists of dubious motivation.'
He is critical of 'interfering busybodies' and 'anti-Ulster propagandists.'
Retaliation by RUC last resort: PM
Report: O'Neill says that
the RUC took strong action against
Derry demonstrators only as a last resort, following an attack
on members of the force.
Nationalists back for Craig
Report: Nationalist MPs may attend Stormont when Craig
is asked about his instructions to Derry police as to 5 October
march. Bailie warns against the development of a UDI mentality
among Unionists. They cannot ignore the British prime minister
or public opinion. Church leaders from Belfast
have met Craig and McAteer to discuss Derry.
Pounder speaks of resentment in Northern Ireland at 'the emotional
and inaccurate anti-Ulster outbursts which had received extensive
press and television coverage.' He also argues that 'recent disturbances
in Londonderry had been blatantly exploited by those whose traditional
hostility to Ulster was well-known as an opportunity to smear,
belittle and condemn the democratically elected parliament.'
The chairman of the Ulster Young Unionist Council
feels that most, if not all of those people involved in the Northern
Ireland civil rights organisations are communists and republicans.
McGowan condemns press coverage of Derry.
'Determined to banish Gerry Fitt'
Report: West Belfast Unionist Association
commends Bradford on his recent television performance and extends
its support to Craig for his handling of
the Derry situation.
Case of house that was let to an unwed protestant
Report: In Fermanagh County Council, the allegation is
made that a house has been allocated to an unmarried protestant
man, who subsequently allowed his sister and her family to move
into the house in question, which he himself vacated, thus breaching
the tenancy agreement. It is argued that more needy cases were
passed over for the allocation. It is
agreed that the matter will be investigated.
Religious discrimination: words of Henry Joy McCracken recalled
Letter: Henry Joy McCracken spoke out against inequity;
170 years later, the symptoms of the disease of which he spoke
are still present. It is to be hoped that one day it will be
possible to say that his sacrifice was not in vain.
Orangemen on the Longstone Road
Letter: It is true that Orangemen marched down the Longstone
Road in 1955; and this was not the only incident of its kind.
Mr Wilson must take action
Letter: Wilson must intervene in Northern
Ireland now, while media coverage remains at its height; if he
does not, discrimination will continue for
Goodwill needed - and charity!
Letter: Derry marks an important point of departure in
Northern Ireland's history; the future will be decided both by
the politicians on both sides of the divide as well as by the
ordinary people. O'Neill must act
now to build confidence: promises are no longer sufficient. He
must have the courage to face down the right wing of his party.
Derry's lamentable housing situation will not be remedied overnight,
but the prime minister could demonstrate his good intentions by
introducing democracy into local government.
Opposition parties should be pressed to help O'Neill to right
the wrongs of many years. They cannot simply use Derry as a stick
with which to beat the Unionist Party. The
situation is in no way helped by the extremists of whatever hue.
Moderate people must therefore stand together and search out
a solution to the state's problems.
Miss Betty Sinclair
Letter: Attacks on Betty Sinclair
are unjustified given her brave stand for civil rights in Northern
Ireland. The Belfast Trades Council is on record for its condemnation
of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia; it should not be too
much to ask for people to stand up for the cause of civil rights
in Northern Ireland.
Letter: If those heading the civil rights campaign are
serious in their intention to secure human rights,
then they should march in protest against the denial of rights
that is the papal encyclical on birth control.
Editorial: Craig was wise to ban the
extreme protestant counter-demonstration in Derry. The civil
rights demonstration is not intended to provoke. 'A continuance
of the activities of this sort of protestant extremism constitutes
a threat not only to Unionism in its more
reasonable manifestation, but to the better community relations
which they have proclaimed they so much desire.' There must be
no compromise with such elements.
Ulster 'protestant supremacy state'
Report: A writer for the Spectator comments 'what
we have got in Ulster is, in fact, the creation of a religious
state based on the necessity of preserving protestant supremacy
in a part of what is an overwhelmingly catholic island.'
Prejudice results from insecurity says professor
Report: A Scottish professor says that prejudice is caused mainly by insecurity: 'it gives great comfort to be able to hate somebody else when you are not sure about yourself.' He asserts that a belief exists outside Northern Ireland that there is 'a good deal of prejudice in the Province.' The most prejudiced elements are those who make the headlines. There are however In Northern Ireland many people who are not affected by such feelings.
October 1968: | 1-5 | 7-12 | 14-19 | 21-26 | 28-31 |
14 - 19 October: | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | Top |
CAIN contains information and source material on the conflict and politics in Northern Ireland.
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